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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-108

Characteristics of acute kidney injury in adult patients in a tertiary health facility in northern Nigeria

Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Istifanus Bala Bosan
Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2455-3069.198377

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Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex renal disorder with multiple etiologies and manifestations which vary widely between regions and populations and it is associated with an increased mortality. It is defined by abrupt rise in serum creatinine and/or decrease in urine output to below 0.5 ml/kg/h. Materials and Methods: Patients' records from January 2013 to December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively, and data from those who satisfied the definition of AKI were extracted for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17. Results were presented as means, frequencies, and percentages, and the significance of relationships was investigated using t-test or Chi-square test as appropriate. Results: Three hundred and twenty patients, 2.3% of the total hospital adult admissions and 12.5% of adult medical admissions, had AKI. There were 162 (50.6%) males with a mean age of 38.51 ± 16.574 years and 158 (49.4%) females with a mean age of 31.22 ± 13.471 years. The most common causes of AKI were sepsis (37.2%), diarrhea and vomiting (27.5%), and hemorrhage (16.9%). Of those who had sepsis, 70/119 (58.8%) were females while 70/88 (79.5%) of those with diarrhea and vomiting were males. Most patients (58.1%) presented with Stage 3 injuries which had a significant influence on renal outcome and mortality. Anemia was more common in females, i.e., 85/158 (53.8%) than males, i.e., 11/162 (6.8%), but it did not have a significant influence on the severity of injury and the overall outcome. We conclude that AKI is not uncommon in our environment and the outcome depends on the etiology and severity of injury. Hemodialysis treatment given when indicated improved the overall outcome.

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