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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-32

Significance of endometrial thickness on transvaginal sonography in heavy menstrual bleeding

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Ambedkar Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Rekha Sachan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George Medical University, C-28, Sec-J Aliganj, Lucknow - 226 024, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrsm.jcrsm_43_18

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Background: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is defined as excessive menstrual blood loss which interferes with a woman's physical, social, emotional, and/or material quality of life. This is the most distressing complication in perimenopausal women which affects the quality of life. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate endometrial thickness (ET) by ultrasound and histopathological examination and their correlation with HMB in perimenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was carried out over 1 year. A total of 120 women of 40–55 years' age group who presented with abnormal bleeding pattern were included in the study. These women underwent clinical examination, investigations and ultrasound examination followed by endometrial biopsy. Results: Majority of the women (47.5%) had menstrual disturbance in the age group of 40–45 years followed by 45.8% of women in the age group of 46–50 years. Menorrhagia was the most common complaint found in 65 (54.2%) women, 10 (8.3%) women suffered from metrorrhagia, 18 (15%) had polymenorrhea, and 22 (18.3%) women had amenorrhea followed by heavy bleeding. Proliferative endometrium was found in 90 (75%), secretory endometrium in 8 (6.7%) and simple hyperplasia without atypia in 3 (2.5%) of the women in the study population. Simple hyperplasia with atypia was observed in 2 women (1.7%), 3 women (2.5%) had complex hyperplasia without atypia, and 1 woman (0.83%) had complex hyperplasia with atypia. Endometritis was present in 5 (4.2%) cases and atrophic endometrium was found in 3 (2.5%)cases and atrophic endometrium was found in 2.5% (3). No endometrial biopsy specimen was suggestive of endometrial carcinoma. Simple hyperplasia with atypia was detected when ET was 11–15 mm and 16–20 mm. Complex hyperplasia without atypia was detected with ET >16–20 mm and >20 mm. Only one case had complex hyperplasia with atypia where ET was >20 mm. No abnormal endometrial pathology was detected when ET was below 11 mm. Conclusions: Increased ET on transvaginal ultrasound had association with abnormal endometrial tissue histopathology in women with HMB.

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