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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-8

Evaluation of ocular manifestations of patients with pathological myopia at a tertiary eye care institute in Western India

Department of Retina, M and J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Somesh Aggarwal
B/102, Anand Milan Towers, Near Municipal Garden, Shahibaug, Ahmedabad - 380 004, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrsm.jcrsm_60_20

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Introduction: Pathological myopia (PM) is defined as a refractive error ≥(−6) D or an axial length >26 mm causing complications such as early nuclear sclerosis, zonular dehiscence, macular hole, lacquer cracks, Forster-Fuchs spots, myopic traction maculopathy, macular choroidal neovascularization, and peripheral degenerations predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Materials and Methodology: In this cross-sectional observational study, we have studied 106 eyes of 56 patients. After history and examination, axial length was measured using A-scan biometry. Patients having myopic maculopathy underwent optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography and were treated appropriately. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel sheet for statistical analysis. Results: Incidence of high myopia was maximum in 21–30 years (36%). Eighteen percent had positive family history, and in 89%, the presentation was bilateral. About 43.39% eyes had refraction value in the range of −6 to −10 D and 70.75% eyes had axial length between 26 and 30 mm. Nearly 39.62% eyes had best-corrected visual acuity in the range of 6/18–6/36. Fifty-two percent eyes had some vitreous degeneration. Myopic choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) was seen in 4.71% eyes. Lattice degeneration was the most common (43.39%) lesion predisposing to RD, majority seen in superotemporal quadrant (63.04%). Incidence of RRD was 6.52% and 15% in eyes with refractive error less than and more than −10 D, respectively. Conclusion: PM can cause irreversible vision loss with its complications such as CNVM and RRD. Awareness among myopic population regarding visual hygiene, safety precautions, risks, and complications involved can detect complications at the earliest helping in retaining useful ocular function.

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