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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 81-84

A case of enteric fever complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis probably induced by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID-19 vaccine

Department of Internal Medicine, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mathew Cherian
2D/2, Madhuban Apts, 25 Ritherdon Road, Chennai - 600 007, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrsm.jcrsm_94_21

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Although enteric fever is a relatively common disease in countries mainly belonging to South Asia (incidence of around 100/100,000 persons per year) where there is poor hygiene, its complications in the form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are rare but have been documented before. Here, we present the case of a 19-year-old boy diagnosed with enteric fever with secondary HLH possibly induced by the COVID-19 vaccine (COVISHIELD ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 coronavirus vaccine [Recombinant]). Although there is no proof that the vaccine could have induced secondary HLH, its possibility cannot be ruled out simultaneously. Early identification and diagnosis of HLH are of extreme importance. If not treated correctly, mortality can reach up to 40%. In this article, we would like to press upon the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of such a case and the possibility of this presentation being induced by the COVID-19 vaccine.

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