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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 108-115

The prognostic role of inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective analysis in a tertiary care hospital of southern India

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Government Villupuram Medical College and Hospital, Viluppuram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Government Sivagangai Medical College and Hospital, Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Government Sivagangai Medical College and Hospital, Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Sangeetha Kandasamy
No 54/55 Mount Kailash, Tamarai Street, Subiksha Garden, Pannampattu Road, Viluppuram - 605 602, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrsm.jcrsm_4_22

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Background: Approximately 5% of COVID-19 patients suffer from near-fatal disease. Clinical and radiologic features may predict severe disease although with limited specificity and radiation hazard. Laboratory biomarkers are specific, simple, and point-of-care triage tools that can be used to predict the severity of the disease. This research aimed to study the role of inflammatory markers (serum ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], D-dimer, and C-reactive protein [CRP]) in prognosticating COVID-19 patients. Methodology: This was a hospital-based retrospective study conducted on COVID-19 adult inpatients classified into three groups: mild disease-recovered (Group I), severe disease-recovered (Group II), and dead (Group III). Categorical outcomes were compared using the Chi-square test. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between the outcome and explanatory variables. An unadjusted odds ratio (OR) along with a 95% confidence interval was calculated. The utility of laboratory parameters (ferritin, LDH, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer, and platelet/lymphocyte ratio) in predicting the severity of COVID-19 was assessed by the receiver operative curve analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 500 case records were analyzed. The mean age was 49.32 ± 17.1 years. About 72.4% were <60 years and 301 male and 199 female patients were included. The comorbidity count included diabetes 168 (33.6%), hypertension 122 (24.4%), coronary artery disease 23 (4.6%), hypothyroidism 3 (6%), and others 33 (6.6%) The median levels of ferritin among the three groups differed significantly bearing higher levels in Group 3 (P < 0.001). Median LDH and D-dimer values of the three groups showed statistical significance (P < 0.001). Qualitative CRP was significantly associated with poor outcomes (P < 0.001). The odds of patients suffering severe COVID-19 rose with rising values of ferritin, LDH, and D-dimer (unadjusted OR: 1.007, 1.004, and 1.020). Conclusion: Onetime measurement of serum ferritin, LDH, D-dimer, and CRP performed between 7th and 10th day of symptoms significantly predicted outcomes for COVID-19 inpatients.

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